What is ROM?

ROM, which stands for read-only memory, is a type of memory that cannot usually be changed once it has been created. This is essential for many electronics today, from computers to microwaves to smartphones. Just about anything that needs to boot up a program to turn on will have ROM installed for that purpose.

What does ROM mean?

ROM is a type of memory that is non-volatile and where modifications are difficult, if they’re possible to do. Non-volatile means that the information is not going to be deleted if the device is turned off. This type of memory is typically used to store firmware that is unlikely to need to be updated, or that is not intended to be updated. Some newer types of ROM have been created that do allow some modifications, but in these cases, it is either very difficult to modify the ROM, or it will take a very long time to accomplish. There is typically a limited number of times that ROM can be modified and, in most cases, it will require special equipment.

How Does it Work?

Progress bar.ROM was originally created to use in computers as a way to start the computer so it could load the hard disk and the operating system. Eventually, the ROM included the full BIOS for the computer, allowing the computer to turn on and load the operating system. ROM typically contains just the necessary information to get everything started and to allow the computer or device to access other types of memory, like the hard disc, to run properly. When the computer or other device is turned on, the ROM gives it the information needed to start working, so without the ROM, the device would not be able to run.

ROM Versus RAM

ROM and RAM, or random-access memory, are often confused. RAM is volatile memory, where ROM is non-volatile. With RAM, if the device is turned off, all the information is deleted. With ROM, if the device is turned off, the information is still on the memory and able to be accessed when the device is turned on again. RAM chips can read data faster than ROM, but because the information is deleted when the device is turned off, ROM is needed to allow the device to turn on and boot properly.

Types of ROM

ROM, as mentioned, is typically read-only. However, there are ROM chips that can be modified, though there are limits to this. The different types of ROM that are standard today include MROMs, PROMs, EPROMs, and EEPROMs. It can be modified and how difficult the modification is to do will be different for each type of ROM.

  • MROM – Also known as masked ROM, this is the original type of ROM and is read-only. These cannot be modified, so once the information is on the ROM, it cannot be changed by anyone. To boot a device differently, it would be necessary to replace the ROM with a different one.
  • PROM – Programmable read-only memory, or PROM, is a type of ROM that can be modified one time only. Programmers can purchase this without any information on it, then use specialized equipment to put their own information on it. Once they have put the information on the ROM, it cannot be changed or replaced.
  • EPROM – This type of ROM, erasable and programmable read-only memory, can be erased and modified by users. However, it needs to be exposed to UV light via special equipment for up to 40 minutes for the information to be erased. After that, the ROM can be modified with new information. Most of the time, there is a limit to how many times this can be done.
  • EEPROM – EEPROM, also known as electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory, is a type of ROM that can be erased and reprogrammed electronically. Erasing is typically done one byte at a time, so the process can be very slow. However, this is the easiest type of ROM to modify, and modifications can be done thousands of times before the ROM no longer works.

Examples of How ROM is Used

Most people are familiar with ROM being used on the computer. It works to load the BIOS information so the operating system can start whenever the computer is turned on. However, ROM is Man holding smartphone.actually in a variety of different items that people use every day. Microwaves use ROM to operate, as do dishwashers. ROM is also used in calculators, laser printers, and other devices that need to be able to start and access information immediately. They are also used in smartphones today, and many of these are reprogrammable so users can create their own custom ROMs for their smartphone.

Custom ROM Options

Some types of ROM, like the EEPROM, can be modified electrically, which makes them easier to modify. A user can then change the information on them to make the device work the way they prefer by using special programs. Custom ROMs are commonly seen in smartphones as they give users root access and allow them to add or subtract features on their phone. The custom ROM programs are designed to change the information on the ROM inside the smartphone. Some popular custom ROMs that are available today can get rid of some preinstalled software on smartphones as well as add more customization options that users can take advantage of. There are a variety of options for custom ROMs to modify the ROM built into the smartphone, so anyone can use these to change how their smartphone works and the features they can use.

ROM is essential for most devices today. While it is intended to be read-only, some types can be modified, allowing users to adjust the information to meet their own preferences. This type of memory is used in many devices, including microwaves, dishwashers, smartphones, and anything else that needs to remember how to work if it’s turned off and back on again.

RAM is short for “random access memory”. This essential component is what allows computers, smartphones, and other devices to run efficiently. Without RAM, a phone would be unable to run applications and even simple tasks such as browsing the web on a computer would take an intolerably long time.

What is RAM?

To those in the know, the name says it all. Random access memory is a particularly fast variety of computer memory that is able to temporarily store the information required to run programs and applications, load pages, and access data.

It’s important to differentiate between a computer’s RAM and, say, its hard drive. While both of these components store data, the hard drive offers long-term storage of information while the RAM only stores relevant data on a temporary basis.

These two components can be compared to long-term and short-term memory in the human brain. When information is stored in long-term memory, it takes a while to recall it but short-term memories can be pulled up remarkably fast. Similarly, accessing information on the hard drive takes a while, while accessing RAM provides almost instantaneous results.

How it Works

The reason that data stored in a device’s RAM can be accessed so quickly is that the RAM is hard-wired into the system. The lack of cabling or connection means that there is no significant latency. The fact that RAM is designed to provide fast access to data means that it can only store information for a limited period of time, though.

RAM is designed to move seamlessly from one task to the next at a moment’s notice. This offers the perfect solution to facilitating high-speed tasks, but it also means that any information stored in a device’s RAM will be lost when the system is turned off or the user has moved on to a new task. That’s why devices need both RAM and long-term storage systems like hard drives and SSDs.

Types of RAM

Even fairly computer-literate consumers often don’t realize that the term RAM can actually be used to describe several different kinds of memory. Most often, when RAM is mentioned in conversation the speaker is actually referencing what’s known as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) or synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM).

Today’s computers almost always utilize DDR4 RAM, although older computers that use DDR2 or DDR3 RAM are still available in some places. These different numbers are used to indicate which generation of RAM is being used by the computer, so higher numbers translate to greater bandwidth and faster speeds.

Despite their similar nomenclature and purpose, these different generations or RAM are actually surprisingly dissimilar. With each new generation, physical changes have been made. While that’s good news for consumers, it does mean that different generations of RAM are not interchangeable.

Specialty RAM

When consumers begin to venture into the sphere of specialized gaming computers, they may begin to hear other terms that pertain to RAM thrown around. These include VRAM, or video RAM.  VRAM is a type of specialized short-term memory that is available only to computers’ graphics cards or graphics chips.

Technically, the VRAM used in graphics cards should be referred to as Graphics DDR SDRAM, but that’s a bit of a mouthful. Most people default to either VRAM or GDDR. Different generations of GDDR are denoted by numbers, just like ordinary RAM, with most contemporary graphics cards using GDDR5.

Some of the newest graphics cards feature GDDR5X standard, though, and the Nvidia RTX Turing graphics card uses GDDR6. Niche graphics cards may also use High-Bandwidth-Memory (HBM) RAM, a highly-specialized and consequently quite expensive and difficult to procure type of memory. Unless they’re professional gamers or designers, though, most users will find that the GDDR5 RAM is more than sufficient to meet their needs.

Size Versus Speed

As with most things in life, size just isn’t everything when it comes to buying RAM. The majority of operating systems and applications actually use a fairly minimal amount of RAM, with minimum requirements ranging from one gigabyte to eight gigabytes. That’s why just buying more RAM doesn’t necessarily speed up a computer.

What’s arguably more important than having massive amounts of RAM is speeding up the computer’s memory. Most DDR4 memory will run anywhere between 2,133 MHz and 3,000 MHz. This is adequate for the majority of users, but those who find that they need some extra speed may want to invest in faster DDR4 kits, which can run at speeds of more than 4,000MHz.

Multi-Channel RAM Kits

The majority of today’s memory is dual-memory. All that means is that two RAM sticks of the same type and speed can be accessed at the same time, speeding up the computer’s short-term memory. High-end RAM kits are typically multi-channel, rather than dual-channel. They may support three or even four RAM modules.

When installing new RAM modules, it’s important to pay attention to the color of the slots on the computer’s motherboard. New RAM must be installed in the right place. Each motherboard is different, but information about where to install RAM modules can be found in each machine’s individual help manual.

Understanding the Labels

By now, consumers should have an idea of how to evaluate their computers’ current RAM and whether or not they need to upgrade. Choosing the right RAM can be difficult even for those who know exactly what they’re looking for, though, as the labels typically consist of long strings of numbers and letters.

The first number following the DDR designation will be the RAM’s MHz speed. Often, this number is followed by a “PC” label. This will appear as “PC” followed by the MHz speed multiplied by eight.

Timing is typically listed as several numbers that are separated by dashes. These numbers refer to the latency of the memory. Although hardcore gamers may need to purchase high-performance RAM that features increased timings, the majority of average consumers really don’t need to worry too much about this feature.

The Bottom Line

RAM functions as short-term memory. When a computer doesn’t have enough RAM, it can slow things down significantly. Although many niche and high-quality RAM kits are available, the average consumer doesn’t need more than a standard DDR4 dual-channel kit. However, top-tier gamers may find that it’s worth investing in more advanced GDDR so that they can run games with complex graphics at optimal speeds.

Choosing the right hard drive for a computer can be important. The hard drive is what saves all of the information on the computer, allowing it to load the operating system and any programs that might be used on the computer. It also saves all files you create so you can store them and access them easily. When you need a new hard drive, you need to choose between HDD and SSD Hard Drive.

HDD Versus SSD

Hard Disk Drive

HDD, or Hard Disk Drives, have been used for storing data since 1956. Basically, these hard drives use magnets to store information on a spinning plate inside the hard drive. The faster the plate spins, the faster information can be stored or recovered. This is the least expensive way to store information nowadays and it’s common today to see HDDs that can hold a terabyte of information.

SSDs, on the other hand, do not have anything that moves inside of them. Inside, they more closely resemble the inside of a flash drive. Most SSDs today use NAND flash memory, the same as flash cards, to store information. This is stable and can allow the stored information to be kept for years. They are larger than flash cards and can hold quite a bit more information as a result.

Different Types of SSD Drives

There are two main types of SSD Drives, SATA or PCIe. SATA drives connect using the same cables as an HDD, making it easy to use the SSD in place of an HDD. They’re typically 2.5 inches, so around the same size as the hard drive in a laptop.

PCIe cards connect to the PCI Express slot on the motherboard and are usually only found in desktop computers because of how they connect. There simply isn’t room for them in most laptops. Because of the way they connect, this type of SSD isn’t usually a good replacement for an HDD unless there is room for it when the computer is built.

M.2 is a module that provides support for both SATA and PCIe interfaces. They connect via a dedicated connector on the motherboard and are typically used to provide increased performance. With the M.2, it’s no longer necessary for people to purchase a dedicated PCIe SSD card.

When to Use an SSD Drive

SSD Hard Drive

SSD drives offer speed. They’re much faster to HDDs and can reduce the wait time for the operating system to load, for programs to start, or to open and save files on the computer. HDD has been the standard for a long time, but most people move to SSD simply because of the boost in speed. SSDs can also be used alongside an HDD in the computer, allowing for speed when starting the computer or opening programs, but stability with the files stored on the HDD. Most laptops will just have one type of hard drive, so choosing speed is an option that many people make, especially if they’re going to be using the laptop for gaming.

When Not to Use an SSD Drive

HDDs are better when mass storage is needed. When a lot of information needs to be stored, HDDs offer the storage for a much smaller cost compared to SSDs. Stability may also be a concern when a lot of information needs to be stored. Though SSDs can store a lot of information and will be able to access it faster, they do not tend to last as long as HDDs and aren’t able to handle information being written over as well as HDD drives.

In laptops, it’s likely there will only be enough room for one hard drive. In these cases, it’s important to consider whether speed or storage space is more important and to look into the costs for the amount of storage that’s needed. In desktop computers, it’s possible to use more than one hard drive. An SSD can be used to load programs with speed while an HDD or a few HDDs can be used to store the actual information on the computer. This cuts down on costs while still boosting the overall speed of the computer.

While HDDs have been around for a long time, SSDs are becoming the new standard because of the speed they offer. When you need to purchase a new hard drive for your computer, consider the differences between SSDs and HDDs so you can make sure you choose the right one for your needs. This will allow you to make sure your computer runs the way you want it to run and stores as much information as you might need.